The Safavid dynasty had its origins in a long established Sufi order which had flourished in Azerbaijan since the early 14th century.  In regards to exports, the Mughals also had the Safavids bested in terms of the amount and type of goods and services exported.  Furthermore, differences between the two economies, on a larger scale, can be observed in the vastly different approaches implemented by Mughal and Safavid rulers at the time.  Furthermore, according to historian Jos Gommans, these horses were “initially sold at the local markets of Balkh, Bukhara and Herat, of which the latter also became an outlet for the minor Iranian market.” Elphinstone goes on to support this claim by stating that the finest horses in Afghanistan originated from Turkistan, north of Kabul and Qandahar, and that details regarding the various breeds to be purchased could be found in Balkh, along with their prices.. Members of the Safavid Dynasty likely were of Kurdish Persian descent and belonged to a unique order of Sufi -infused Shi'a Islam called Safaviyya. Though one could certainly make the argument that the empire reached its zenith during his time as shah. FROM THE SAFAVIDS THROUGH THE ZANDS. How many eligible voters are registered to vote in the United States? 1450 – 1750 Janet Pareja, Signature School, Evansville, IN 2. Once known as Persia, the area encompassing and surrounding modern day Iran has seen many empires rise and fall. The geographic area that this paper will explore is highlighted below in Figure 1. An integral part of generating profitable commerce in Safavid territories centered around creating a hospitable and tolerant environment in which to conduct business transactions. However, the use of the word “unbalanced” is not meant to imply a sense of instability or weakness, but rather represent the unique way in which the Safavid economy was positioned within the larger global economic system as a whole. Abstract.  Many chose the maritime route, but those who decided on taking the overland route were often trying to maximize their profits by trading en route to their destination. Oct 1, 1587. In fact, depending upon one’s location, the prices between the two were actually comparable. Safavid dynasty, ruling dynasty of Iran from 1501 to 1736, known especially for its architectural achievements and its establishment of Twelver Shi‘ism among various ethnic and linguistic groups throughout Iran as a major unifying factor. Ultimately, the product of these trends points towards the emergence of a truly global economy. When discussing the Qandahar-Isfahan route, it is important to note that this route actually starts in Lahore and not Qandahar. It was this privileged treatment that arguably propelled New Julfa to “unparalleled heights of economic prosperity.”. “The Safavid Economy as Part of the World Economy.” In, Steinmann, Linda K. “Shah ‘Abbas and the Royal Silk Trade 1599-1629.”. Under the reign of Shah Abbas, Isfahan became the undisputed capital of Safavid Iran and one of the major economic centers throughout the entire Middle East—a point which can be validated based on Isfahan’s immense population statistics. Our logo, banner, and trademark are registered and fully copyright protected (not subject to Creative Commons).  According to Willem Floor and Edmund Herzig, “to Iran, Qandahar was a very important source of revenue, and its importance may also explain why there were intermittent military conflicts between the Mughals and Safavids over who controlled the city.” By the account of two British East India Company merchants, Richard Steel and John Crowther, in 1614: “Merchants of India assemble at Lahore, and invest a great part of their monies in commodities, and joyne themselves in caravans to passe the mountaines of Candahar into Persia, by which way is generally reported to passe twelve or fourteen thousand camels lading, whereas heretofore scarsly passed three thousand, the rest going by way or Ormus.” Accordingly, we can deduce that Indian merchants used the camel as a technology by which to transport massive amounts of goods overland via the Qandahar-Isfahan route. How do you diagnose the solenoid on a 2003 Ford Focus? “The City of Balkh and the Central Eurasian Caravan Trade in the Early Nineteenth Century.”, Lambourn, Elizabeth. Silk was a highly valued commodity, especially in the Ottoman Empire and Mediterranean region to the West. These military tactics, however, had been out dated and made obsolete by the new tactics and strategies of the surrounding empires. The Safavid dynasty had its origin in the Safavid order of Sufism, which was established in the city of Ardabil in the Iranian Azerbaijan region.  Historian Arash Khazeni states, “Crossing Balkh, above the snowy ridges of the Hindu Kush were trade routes connecting Afghanistan with Central Eurasia,” which can be seen below highlighted in red. Originally published by Middle Eastern Communities and Migrations Student Research Papers, James Madison University Scholarly Commons, 06.27.2017, under the terms of a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International license. Over time, thanks to the military might of the foreign trading companies, the overland route gradually became safer. The Safavid Empire (1502-1736) was a Persian military state that dominated the region for two centuries and initiated one of Persia's golden ages. However, that should not diminish the importance of the rest of the trade route stretching from Qandahar to Isfahan, especially for Safavid Iran.  While passing through Qandahar on their way from India to Iran, Steel and Crowther reported that, “prior to the start of these hostilities, around 1614, not more than 3,000 camels used to ply the India-Qandahar-Iran trade route annually, while after that year their number increased to 12,000 and even 14,000.” Furthermore, Steel and Crowther estimated that “the value of the goods per camel was 120-130 rupees, so the total value of trade that year was about 1.4-1.8 million rupees (16-20 metric tones of silver. While more “traditional” economies possessed a closer balance between the amount of goods exported and imported (and thereby absorbed), Safavid Iran’s economy was comparatively unbalanced in these core aspects. Despite the global scope of these developments, there are very few publications which properly document the role that Safavid Iran’s economy played within this complex system. In the case of the exchange of western bullion for eastern silk, neither the bullion that was imported nor all of the silk that was exported originated in Iran itself. Encouraged trade by developing the Persian infrastructure. The dynasty began as a Sufi order but evolved into a major gunpowder empire. The Safavid Empire reached its zenith under Shah Abbas the Great of Persia (reigned 1588–1629), who ruled with an iron fist. Abbas managed to destroy the rival Turkish Gazilbash tribes, reform the army, and create a prosperous economy based on the trade of luxury goods, especially silk brocades. Strengths of the Safavid Empire. The Shah’s that followed Shah Abbas were ineffectual towards the empire. Copyright © 2021 Multiply Media, LLC. Instead, the gold was exported to India to balance the previously mentioned trade deficit, and the commodities imported from India were shipped to the West to obtain more gold in an attempt to further balance the trade deficit. This is your place to remember Safavid. Science and Technology By: Cole Brandser In 1514, the Safavid were not very technologically advanced. Section I: For Teachers Overview (Reference for Teachers): This overview will summarize important information regarding three coexisting economies connected to Indian Ocean Trade. Handwoven carpets were very popular. Some of these manufactured articles included: cotton cloth, indigo, saltpeter, spices, opium, sugar, silk cloth, yarn, salt, beads, borax, turmeric, lac, sealing wax and drugs of various kinds. One way that Safavid Iran promoted business opportunities within its borders was by establishing an elaborate system of caravanserais.  These overland merchants conducted their commerce at the many aforementioned caravanserais. Having established that Safavid Iran’s transit economy did in fact play a significant role during a crucial time for global economic development, we can now more closely examine the logistics of Iran’s transport of goods and services both East and West. According to Stephen Dale, “Mughal rulers had the luxury of being able merely to preside over a powerful laissez faire economy that allowed them to have what was essentially a free-trade foreign economic policy, while Shah Abbas instituted a kind of state capitalism and an Iranian mercantilism to develop and protect his state’s more fragile economic circumstance.” It is important to note, however, that the extent of Safavid Iran’s economic impact does not begin or end with the reign of Shah Abbas. Whereas, comparatively, one could argue that Kabul’s influence gravitates northward due to its proximity to the overland silk trade routes, such as the famed “Silk Road.” In order to obtain a more holistic understanding of precisely how caravans traveled throughout south, central, and west Asia, we will use the Qandahar-Isfahan trade route and the province of Balkh, in modern Afghanistan, as case studies.  Still, based on the firsthand accounts of the size of the camel caravans which frequented the Qandahar-Isfahan route, the sheer amount of capital being transported within those caravans, and the perpetual conflict for control of Qandahar, the overland trade routes were undoubtedly a vital part of Safavid-Mughal relations, and more importantly, Safavid Iran’s transit economy. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The presence of the caravanserais serves to further the claim that the flow of goods and services through Safavid Iran was constant. Some of these camel caravans used an alternative route by way of modern day Hormuz. What fueled the growth of Safavid economy was Iran’s position between the burgeoning civilizations of Europe to its west and India and Islamic Central Asia to its east and north. To counter the rising Safavid power, in 1502, Sultan Bayezid II forcefully deported many Shi'as from Anatolia to other parts of the Ottoman realm. Indo-Iranian Commercial Relations.”, Mathee, Rudi. The primary consequence of this system resulted in the mass export of bullion received from the silk trade with the West to the Indian subcontinent in an attempt to balance the trade deficit. 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As a result, conventional wisdom has incorrectly bred the notion that Safavid Iran’s economic impact was minimal. Celebrate the life of Safavid Empire from Safavid Empire. According to historians, since time immemorial agriculture has always been the backbone of economy of the country. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! The primary reason why the impact of the Safavid economy may have paled in comparison to larger nation states and empires is because the economy did not function in a “traditional” sense. The Safavid Empire was a theocracy; The state religion was Shi'a Islam; All other religions, and forms of Islam were suppressed; The Empire's economic strength … Handwoven carpets were very popular. The material on this site can not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with prior written permission of Multiply. According to many historians, the Safavid empire marked the beginning of modern Persia. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. Safavid history is rife with clashes and wars between the Shi'a Muslim Safavid Persians and the Sunni Ottoman Turks. He was a disciple of the famed Sufi grand master Sheikh Zahed Gilani (1216 - 1301) of Lahijan.  Furthermore, one can argue that Qandahar’s significance gravitates southward due to its ties to maritime trade routes. Safavid Empire Made by: Megan Powell, Vicky Rodriguez, Keely Hoppmeyer, and Brennen Powell Safavid vs Other Empires Social: The Safavids gave women more rights while the Ottomans tried to remain more traditional Mughals began to take away women's freedoms such a making them veil How much money do you start with in monopoly revolution? Safavid culture played a role in the empire's economy because 'Abbas encouraged the manufacturing of traditional products. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. These fluctuating trade patterns began to generate nascent economic, political, and social trends the likes of which had never been seen before. “Muslim Civilization in India – Part Two: The Mughal Period, Chapter 17.” In, Khazeni, Arash. The Silk Road which led through northern Iran to India revived in the 16th century. Safavid Iran’s largest trading partner to the East was Mughal India. It also came to terms with the Tajik aristocracy, which included the established ulama. The purpose of this paper is to disprove this theory in three stages. But in the seventeenth century the Ottoman threat to the Safavids declined. Other exports were horses, goat hair, pearls and an inedible bitter almond hadam-talka used as a spice in Ind… However, because the stretch of road from Lahore to Qandahar is so well known, we will instead focus on the route as it begins in Qandahar. Some of the silk originated in the Orient, and the bullion originated in the West. This phenomenon can again be observed when analyzing the dynamics involved in the exchange of western bullion for various spices, textiles, and services imported from India. The Safavid Empire, based in Persia , ruled over much of southwestern Asia from 1501 to 1736. For the Mughals, a majority of their trade relations with Persia began and ended in Lahore. The Persian carpet and textile industries flourished with his support, and Abbas extended a royal monopoly over silk, which was exported in immense quantities. The Safavid Empire was predeceased by The Mongol Empire. “The Horse Trade in Eighteenth-Century South Asia.”, Ikram, S. M., Frances W. Pritchett, and Barbara Metcalf. vii. Many of these routes passed through imperial Isfahan. The Safavid Empire was held together in the early years by conquering new territory, and then by the need to defend it from the neighbouring Ottoman Empire. Evidence of this phenomenon is fairly well documented, as it served as the catalyst which transformed civilizations in nearly every corner of the world.  Elphinstone claimed that these horses were exported in “considerable numbers.” This could be observed at the Indian fairs or “melas” where the horses imported were Turkoman or “Turki” breeds, from the area north of the Hindu Kush around Balkh. Furthermore, this map also highlights several important ancient trade routes which will be discussed in later sections of this paper. This map provides an excellent data visualization, as it illustrates the centrality of Persia between the Orient and the major economic players to the West. One empire in… In the case of Julfa specifically, its destruction at the hands of Shah Abbas during the Safavid-Ottoman war of 1603-05, and the subsequent forced migration of the native Armenian population, led to the rise of New Julfa, a wealthy mercantile suburb in Isfahan. Decline of the Safavid Empire Many factors played into the decline and fall of the Safavid Empire. Safavid Empire Economy. Safavid culture played a role in the empire's economy because 'Abbas encouraged the manufacturing of traditional products. rich on trade because of location, Iranian art flourished, strong military. In summation, without the mercantilist Safavid transit economy promoting the flow of goods and services from East to West and vice versa, the growth that the global economy experienced during the seventeenth century could have been severely stunted. Finally, the paper will examine the trade routes used to transport goods and services in and out of Iran. Geographical discoveries, in general, and bypassing the Cape of Good Hope, in particular, in South Africa, changed traditional trade routes in Iran’s international trade. In the year 1722, Afghan invaders, of the Sunni branch of Islam, reached the Safavid capital, Isfahan. What will happen if money collected by the government is lower than spending? The Safavids were admired for x [V h+ f 5_ " ^ 5!SP c ]0 /h ʙiZ w Ĳ 'Ky ! Safavid Iran possessed vital geographic proximity between the highly productive Orient and consumption hungry Europe. See "Terms of Service" link for more information. “Between Venice and Surat: The Trade in Gold in Late Safavid Iran.”, ———. During the reign of Shah Abbas (1588-1629), the Safavid conquest of Gilan, Mazandaran and Julfa saw the forced migration of Armenian populations to Isfahan. Other exports were horses, goat hair, pearls, and an inedible bitter almond hadam-talka used as a specie in I… Safavid Persian Empire is ranked 23,814 th in the world and 20 th in Greater Middle East for Largest Furniture Restoration Industry, scoring 4,956.38 on the Spitz-Pollish Productivity Index . Al-Kazimiyyah Shrine The Al-Kazimiyyah Shrine was origanly built in 799, but was ordered to be reconstructed in 1508. This is due to one simple fact: Safavid Iran possessed vital geographic proximity between the highly productive Orient and consumption hungry Europe. Safavid culture played a role in the empire's economy because  Based on these observations, it is important to understand the political, cultural, social, and economic dynamics between west and south Asia during this time as an “interactive continuum” and not as “discrete and self-contained political entities.” Therefore, prior to delving into specific pieces of supporting evidence, we must adopt a working understanding of the Safavid transit economy as one which had a far larger impact on the developing global economy than previously thought.. All Rights Reserved. Two have already been discussed: gold and silk. Merchants were free to choose whether they wanted to use the maritime route or the overland route. A majority of Mughal exports consisted of manufactured goods, which were in high demand in Europe and elsewhere. “Modernity and Nation-making in India, Turkey and Iran.”, Gommans, Jos. In 1501 the Safavid Empire was founded by Ismail I. Nov 12, 1508. Why don't libraries smell like bookstores? See the bottom of each page for copyright information. “Empires and Emporia: Palace, Mosque, Market, and Tomb in Istanbul, Isfahan, Agra, and Delhi.”, Fernee, Tadd Graham. Who is the longest reigning WWE Champion of all time? Safavid Persian Empire's national animal is the Lion, which frolics freely in the nation's many lush forests. ECONOMY. Abbas I also supported direct trade with Europe, particularly England and The Netherlands, which sought Iranian carpets, silk, and textiles. The seventeenth century ushered in a plethora of changes in global trade patterns. One form of economic exchange that may serve as the best example of this “interactive continuum” would be the trade and transit of bullion and silk. “Merchants in Safavid Iran: Participants and Perceptions.”, ———. Finally, referencing the previously mentioned trade surplus Mughal India maintained over Safavid Iran, there were only three commodities which Iran could offer to offset the deficit. The primary reason why the impact of the Safavid economy may have paled in comparison to larger nation states and empires is because the economy did not function in a “traditional” sense.
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